Solo Travel Around the Globe

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The cause of “travel” is in all likelihood lost to history. The expression “travel” may begin from the Old French word travail. As per the Merriam Webster lexicon, the main known utilization of the word travel was in the fourteenth century. In English we still infrequently utilize the words travail and travails, which mean battle. As per Simon Winchester in his book The Best Travelers’ Tales, the words travel and travail both offer a significantly more old root: a Roman instrument of torment called the tripalium.

Today, travel might possibly be significantly simpler relying on the goal you pick (i.e., Mt. Everest, the Amazon rainforest), how you intend to arrive (visit transport, voyage ship, or oxcart), and regardless of whether you choose to “harsh it (see extraordinary tourism and experience travel). “There’s a major distinction between essentially being a visitor and being a genuine world explorer,” notes travel essayist Michael…

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History of Photography and Nature

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The history of photography has roots in remote antiquity with the discovery of the principle of the camera obscura (a dark room) and the observation that some substances are visibly altered by exposure to light. As far as is known, nobody thought of bringing these two phenomena together to capture camera images in permanent form until around 1800, when Thomas Wedgwood made the first reliably documented although unsuccessful attempt. In the mid-1820s, Nicéphore Niépce succeeded, but several days of exposure in the camera were required and the earliest results were very crude. Niépce’s associate Louis Daguerre went on to develop the daguerreotype process, the first publicly announced photographic process, which required only minutes of exposure in the camera and produced clear, finely detailed results. It was commercially introduced in 1839, a date generally accepted as the birth year of practical photography.

The metal-based daguerreotype process soon had some competition from…

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President Trump Says He Wishes He Hadn’t Picked Jeff Sessions for Attorney General

President Donald Trump once again vented his frustration at Attorney General Jeff Sessions on Twitter – this time saying he wished he hadn’t picked the former Alabama Senator to lead the Justice Department.

In a series of tweets on Wednesday morning, Trump quoted a Fox News interview with House Oversight Chairman Trey Gowdy in which the Republican Congressman said: “I think what the President is doing is expressing frustration that Attorney General Sessions should have shared these reasons for recusal before he took the job, not afterward.

“If I were the President and I picked someone to be the country’s chief law enforcement officer, and they told me later, ‘Oh by the way I’m not going to be able to participate in the most important case in the office,’ I would be frustrated too and that’s how I read that. ‘Senator Sessions, why didn’t you tell me before I picked you.’ There are lots of really good lawyers in the country, he could have picked somebody else!”

 

Trump added, “And I wish I did!”

The tweets come after the New York Times reported that Trump tried to get Sessions to reverse his decision to recuse himself in Robert Mueller’s Russia probe, which could be key in the investigation into whether the President obstructed justice. Sessions’ recusal last March, which was based on contact with the Russian ambassador to the U.S. that he failed to disclose during his confirmation hearing, has been a constant point of contention with Trump during Mueller’s year-long investigation into Russian meddling in the 2016 presidential election.

Trump has publicly mused about firing Sessions in the past and Sessions has called the President’s criticism “kind of hurtful.”;

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See the Original Concept Art That Helped Take Disneyland From Dream to Reality

Hand-Colored Disneyland Billboard Concept Brownline lot 58

Walt Disney did not invent the amusement park, but revolutionized the format and, in the minds of many Disney fans, perfected it.

He incorporated rides inspired by family-friendly films and TV shows, TIME’s late film critic Richard Corliss wrote in a 1986, feature, as theme parks were anticipating their best seasons yet. Instead of “crumbling” rides like “rickety roller coasters” and “no-frills thrills,” Walt Disney imagined “every path would be as spotless as Formica; every doorway would be scaled to just above kid-size; every ‘attraction’ (not ride) would be sweet enough for ‘guests’ (not customers) of all ages to enjoy, a little.”

Unsurprisingly, a lot of planning went into that spotless look.

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The “brownlines” and concept art featured above offer a glimpse behind the scenes at that process. Similar to blueprints, “brownlines” are duplicates reproduced so that original concept drawings wouldn’t be damaged; with copies made, the drawings could be distributed among teams working on the park. (The lines are brown because of the chemicals on the transfer paper that was used.) They are artifacts of the planning process for the park, which officially opened to the public on July 17, 1955 — “the world’s biggest toy for the world’s biggest boy,” as a friend of Walt Disney’s described the mogul’s vision for Disneyland. Because brownlines were part of the production process, many were disposed after being used, which means that surviving original examples are relatively rare. The examples in the gallery above are part of an exhibition opening Wednesday at Van Eaton Galleries in Sherman Oaks, Calif., which specializes in Disney memorabilia. The show “This Is Disneyland,” a exhibition of more than 750 items related to the Anaheim, Calif. theme park, comprises the prized possessions of Hollywood agent Richard Kraft and will culminate in a sale on Aug. 25 and Aug. 26.

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But even the best-laid plans can go awry, and the grand opening of “the happiest place on Earth” was hellish. Corliss described the rocky start in his 1986 story:

Even the mastermind recalled it as “Black Sunday.” Everything went wrong. The glut of visitors turned the Santa Ana Freeway into a seven-mile parking lot. Refreshment stands ran out of food and drink for the nearly 30,000 invited guests and thousands more ticket counterfeiters who stormed the gates. Rides broke down almost immediately. A gas leak forced the shuttering of Fantasyland. The day’s corrosive heat sent women’s spiked heels sinking into the asphalt on Main Street. Nor was this a debacle to be covered over with Tinker Bell dust; the whole sorry spectacle was broadcast on a live TV special co-hosted by Ronald Reagan. WALT’S DREAM A NIGHTMARE, proclaimed the Los Angeles Tidings. But Walt, who had sunk his fortune into this $17 million mousehole, was not done wheeling and dreaming. Disney’s name, the most trusted in the movie business, reassured visitors. By Labor Day the park had already greeted its millionth paying guest, and after a year the attendance was 3.8 million.

Disneyland officials clearly had worked out the kinks by the park’s second birthday in 1957, based on feedback from 55 public-opinion polls sampling 500-700 visitors each, as TIME reported back then. The polls concluded that visitors’ “biggest gripe” was “high prices,” which in 1957 meant admission and rides were about $2.72 a day (amounting to about $23 in 2017), with food averaged another $2. (By contrast, today, many ticket prices start at $100.) Nevertheless, 80% of Disney visitors polled in 1957 said they planned to come back despite the high prices. “Disneyland is proving California’s biggest tourist attraction since Hollywood,” TIME reported.

More: See Photos of Disneyland When It Opened in 1955

Disney’s children’s TV shows lured the 43% of visitors who came from out of state in 1957, while dozens of big U.S. companies sponsored special attractions within the attractions to advertise their products, such as Frontierland’s Golden Horseshoe soft-drink saloon run by Pepsi-Cola. By the time Disney World opened in Florida in 1971, people outside of Anaheim started seeing theme parks closer to home in what the magazine called the “Disneyland effect”; for example, Six Flags had opened in Dallas, St. Louis, and Atlanta, Santa’s Villagein Chicago, and Astroworld in Houston.

While new rides have been added in the years since, the enduring appeal of theme park experiences like Disneyland is arguably rooted in something more timeless.

“As for the twin fountainheads of theme parks— Disneyland in Anaheim , Calif., and the gigantic Walt Disney World outside Orlando—they offer nothing less,” Corliss argued, “than a dream of America as it once or never was: a homogenized, turn-of-the-century village propelled into the future by space-age science and the relentless optimism of its founding dreamer.”

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What British People in 1776 Really Thought of American Independence

A page from the Declaration of Independence is displayed at the New York Public Library on July 3, 2009 in New York City.
A page from the Declaration of Independence is displayed at the New York Public Library on July 3, 2009 in New York City.
Spencer Platt—Getty Images
By CIARA NUGENT

July 3, 2018

In the United States, the Fourth of July is time to launch some fireworks and eat some hot dogs in celebration of American independence. But in 1776, when news reached Britain of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence, the atmosphere was anything but celebratory.

A look through letters from the period, now held in the archives of the U.K.’s Nottingham University, shows that British people were divided about the outbreak of war with what was then their colony—over how bad it was, whose fault it was and what to do about it.

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Before the Americans officially declared independence, the British were worried about what King George’s response to the unrest there would be. After all, the Declaration of Independence was not the beginning of the American Revolution; the riot-provoking Stamp Act was passed in 1765, the Boston Tea Party took place in 1773 and the famous “shot heard ’round the world” that is seen as the start of the war was fired in 1775.

One 1775 letter from a group of merchants and traders in the southwestern port city of Bristol sheds light on the economic concerns provoked by the burgeoning revolution. They wrote to the king to express their concern about the “unhappily distracted empires” and urged him to give the American colonists the freedoms they wanted rather than risk a precious trading relationship.

“It is with an affliction not to be expressed and with the most anxious apprehensions for ourselves and our Posterity that we behold the growing distractions in America threaten, unless prevented by the timely interposition of your Majesty’s Wisdom and Goodness, nothing less than a lasting and ruinous Civil War,” they wrote. “We are apprehensive that if the present measures are adhered to, a total alienation of the affections of our fellow subjects in the colonies will ensue, to which affection much more than to a dread of any power, we have been hitherto indebted for the inestimable benefits which we have derived from those establishments. We can foresee no good effects to the commerce or revenues of this kingdom at a future period from any victories which may be obtained by your majesty’s army over desolated provinces and […] people.”

The traders warned the King that “the subsistence of a great part of your kingdom has depended very much on the Honourable and in this instance amicable behaviour of your American subjects. We have in this single city received no less than one million bushels of wheat […].”

A petition from the Merchants, Traders, Manufacturers and other citizens of Bristol to George III; c.1775
A petition from the Merchants, Traders, Manufacturers and other citizens of Bristol to George III; c.1775
Nottingham University Archives

While they were confident that “none can profit by the continuance of this war,” the traders remained optimistic that the Americans would stay friendly if the British adopt a more conciliatory approach, despite things having been “carried to unfortunate lengths of hostility on both sides.”

“[Our] fellow subjects in that part of the world are very far from having lost their affection and regard to their mother country or departed from the principles of commercial honour,” they wrote.

Though their optimism might seem misplaced today, at the time it wasn’t completely ridiculous. After all, this was the same year that Americans’ Second Continental Congress sent the crown the Olive Branch Petition, a last-ditch attempt to convince the King to back off so that the British subjects in the colonies could continue to live happily under his rule alongside their counterparts in England.

Other letters, however, give indications that some people had given up hope that the King would give in to the colonists’ requests.

For example, in March of 1775, Chevalier Renaud Boccolari—whose own homeland of France would see a massive anti-monarchical uprising just over a decade later—wrote to peers from Modena, Italy, warning of the “awful despotism [of the English king]” and the “crowd of blind and ugly [people] with whom he has shared his unjust power for some time.

“We still find among us souls who are sensitive to freedom, souls that have not been swallowed by the insulting dominion of priests, the barbarous constriction of the inquisition and the blind, despotic monarchy,” he wrote. But, he felt “every free country should be alarmed” that “in this century everything is tending towards the most illegitimate despotism.”

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When news finally broke that the Americans had, in fact, declared their independence—that they planned on being their own country, no longer part of the British empire—many in the English aristocracy were horrified.

A series of letters received by the third Duke of Portland reveal how opinions differed on the subject.

On July 22, 1776, his wife Dorothy wrote to him from Nottinghamshire that she had “received letters filled with unpleasant news, that from America I trust in God is not true, it really is too shocking.” On Aug. 16 of that year, Baron Rudolph Bentick also wrote from the Netherlands, bemoaning the news and sharing what people in Europe thought.

“As to people’s opinion here of Great Britain’s disputes with America,” he wrote, “the well meaning all agree no doubt that it is a most unhappy business for both countries and probably will prove a mortal blow to the liberties of the people of England.”

He warned that the influence of certain ambassadors might lead the Dutch to take advantage of Britain’s loss, and “prevent this country from acting a part most consistent and honourable to themselves, as well as beneficial to the liberties of Europe. Prudence prevents me from saying any more as this letter is to go by the post.”

Some, though, blamed the British government for what was happening, and willed their leaders to give up and abandon the war with the Americans. On Sept. 7, 1776, Stephen Sayre of Harley Street, London, wrote to the Duke of Portland urging him and others to come to a meeting to figure out how to cut Britain’s losses. “And tho we think America is lost: yet we wish to preserve this country,” he wrote.

Letter from Stephen Sayre, Harley Street, London, to the 3rd Duke of Portland; 7 Sep. 1776.
Letter from Stephen Sayre, Harley Street, London, to the 3rd Duke of Portland; 7 Sep. 1776.
Nottingham University Archives

And on Oct. 18 1776, the Rt. Honourable Thomas Townshend wrote to the Duke of Portland complaining that “the Government and Majority have drawn us into a war, that in our opinions is unjust in its Principle and ruinous in its consequences.”

As he prepared for a meeting of Parliament, of which he was a longstanding member, Townshend told the Duke the British authorities “by their violence […] have driven the Americans to extremitys.”

“I cannot for one, on any condition, give my assent to any of their measures in the prosecution of it,” he wrote, worrying that many such measures would be proposed at Parliament’s next session. He worried that, despite his point of view “we shall have a difficult task to support the Americans declaring for separation” among the British political establishment.

Townshend dismissed concerns about his letter being read by censors, writing “I have no objection to any one knowing my opinion on this subject.”

Unsurprisingly, others were less sympathetic to the American rebels.

On Dec. 30 1776, one G.B. Brudenell wrote from London, to H.F.C. Pelham-Clinton, 2nd Duke of Newcastle under Lyne, giving news of the capture of Fort Washington by Gen. Howe, who drove the rebel forces from Manhattan, though at great cost.

“It is very melancholy to think,” Brudenell wrote, “that we must sacrifice so many brave lives, in order to put an end, to such an unnatural Rebellion.”

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How This World Cup Photographer Captured the ‘Pure Excitement’ After Croatia’s Victory

Photographer Yuri Cortez has been shooting for Agence France-Presse for 27 years. The job has brought him around the world, covering everything from conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq to natural disasters in Haiti and Mexico.

But last Wednesday’s 2018 FIFA World Cup match between England and Croatiaoffered Cortez a whole new experience: He found himself at the bottom of a pile of Croatian soccer players as they celebrated star striker Mario Mandžukić’s extra time goal against England — the game winner, it would turn out, punching Croatia’s ticket into Sunday’s final against France. It was Cortez’s fourth World Cup, but his first time at the bottom of a goal celebration.

Croatia's forward Mario Mandzukic (C) celebrates with teammates after scoring his team's second goal during the semi-final game on July 11, 2018.
Croatia’s forward Mario Mandzukic (C) celebrates with teammates after scoring his team’s second goal during the semi-final game on July 11, 2018.
Yuri Cortez—AFP/Getty Images
Croatian defender Josip Pivaric celebrates with his teammates.
Croatian defender Josip Pivaric celebrates with his teammates.
Yuri Cortez—AFP/Getty Images

Following his goal, Mandžukić ran to the corner to celebrate with his teammates directly in front of Cortez. “When the second goal happened, I was taking pictures with a 400mm lens,” says Cortez. “When I saw Mandžukić running towards me, I quickly switched cameras. Suddenly more players were coming closer and closer.” As Croatian players ran over to celebrate the goal, Cortez was pushed over and found himself beneath the celebration pile.

“At that moment I was taking pictures of their faces the whole time. Capturing their joy,” he says. “The scenes that I saw that that moment was pure excitement.”

Croatian forward Mario Mandzukic offers to help AFP photographer Yuri Cortez after falling on him during the celebration.
Croatian forward Mario Mandzukic offers to help AFP photographer Yuri Cortez after falling on him during the celebration.
Yuri Cortez—AFP/Getty Images

As the players got up, Mandžukić extended Cortez a hand and asked, “Are these your glasses?” He then placed the glasses on Cortez’s head and shook his hand. Croatian defender Domagoj Vida then gave Cortez a kiss on the forehead before the team returned to the field, leaving him stunned with a glowing smile. “It’s a historic moment for them and a great moment for me,” he says. “Really incredible”

Mario Mandzukic shakes hands with photographer Yuri Cortez after helping him up.
Mario Mandzukic shakes hands with photographer Yuri Cortez after helping him up.
Mladen Antonov—AFP/Getty Images

Cortez says his phone has not stopped ringing from people and publications who are interested in the photographs. But his focus is now on the final game — where he says he’ll be rooting for Croatia.

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What to Know About Gerda Taro, the War Photographer Celebrated By Today’s Google Doodle

Google is paying tribute to pioneering photojournalist Gerda Taro with its Google Doodle on Wednesday.

The Doodle comes on what would have been Taro’s 108th birthday — but the trail-blazing war photographer lost her life at just 26 years old, while covering the Spanish Civil War in 1937. Nonetheless, Taro managed to accomplish quite a bit in her short career.

Taro — born Gerda Pohorylle in Stuttgart, Germany — left Germany for Paris in 1933, after Adolf Hitler become chancellor. In Paris, Taro met and fell in love with photographer Robert Capa, who taught her the basics of the craft, according to the International Center of Photography (ICP). They began covering the Spanish Civil War as a team starting in 1936, the BBC reports, capturing images of troops, conflict and Spanish refugees and sending them back to French newspapers.

Eventually, Taro began venturing out alone on photographic missions — including the one in 1937 that led to her death, after she was inadvertently crushed a Loyalist tank, according to ICP.

A decade ago, an exhibition at the Barbican Art Gallery in London, featuring many never-before-seen images taken by Taro and Capa, gave her work new life. Although Taro’s work has been overshadowed by Capa’s, and her legacy remains largely unknown, she is considered one of the world’s first frontline female war photographers, and the first to die in action.

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