See the Original Concept Art That Helped Take Disneyland From Dream to Reality

Hand-Colored Disneyland Billboard Concept Brownline lot 58

Walt Disney did not invent the amusement park, but revolutionized the format and, in the minds of many Disney fans, perfected it.

He incorporated rides inspired by family-friendly films and TV shows, TIME’s late film critic Richard Corliss wrote in a 1986, feature, as theme parks were anticipating their best seasons yet. Instead of “crumbling” rides like “rickety roller coasters” and “no-frills thrills,” Walt Disney imagined “every path would be as spotless as Formica; every doorway would be scaled to just above kid-size; every ‘attraction’ (not ride) would be sweet enough for ‘guests’ (not customers) of all ages to enjoy, a little.”

Unsurprisingly, a lot of planning went into that spotless look.

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The “brownlines” and concept art featured above offer a glimpse behind the scenes at that process. Similar to blueprints, “brownlines” are duplicates reproduced so that original concept drawings wouldn’t be damaged; with copies made, the drawings could be distributed among teams working on the park. (The lines are brown because of the chemicals on the transfer paper that was used.) They are artifacts of the planning process for the park, which officially opened to the public on July 17, 1955 — “the world’s biggest toy for the world’s biggest boy,” as a friend of Walt Disney’s described the mogul’s vision for Disneyland. Because brownlines were part of the production process, many were disposed after being used, which means that surviving original examples are relatively rare. The examples in the gallery above are part of an exhibition opening Wednesday at Van Eaton Galleries in Sherman Oaks, Calif., which specializes in Disney memorabilia. The show “This Is Disneyland,” a exhibition of more than 750 items related to the Anaheim, Calif. theme park, comprises the prized possessions of Hollywood agent Richard Kraft and will culminate in a sale on Aug. 25 and Aug. 26.

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But even the best-laid plans can go awry, and the grand opening of “the happiest place on Earth” was hellish. Corliss described the rocky start in his 1986 story:

Even the mastermind recalled it as “Black Sunday.” Everything went wrong. The glut of visitors turned the Santa Ana Freeway into a seven-mile parking lot. Refreshment stands ran out of food and drink for the nearly 30,000 invited guests and thousands more ticket counterfeiters who stormed the gates. Rides broke down almost immediately. A gas leak forced the shuttering of Fantasyland. The day’s corrosive heat sent women’s spiked heels sinking into the asphalt on Main Street. Nor was this a debacle to be covered over with Tinker Bell dust; the whole sorry spectacle was broadcast on a live TV special co-hosted by Ronald Reagan. WALT’S DREAM A NIGHTMARE, proclaimed the Los Angeles Tidings. But Walt, who had sunk his fortune into this $17 million mousehole, was not done wheeling and dreaming. Disney’s name, the most trusted in the movie business, reassured visitors. By Labor Day the park had already greeted its millionth paying guest, and after a year the attendance was 3.8 million.

Disneyland officials clearly had worked out the kinks by the park’s second birthday in 1957, based on feedback from 55 public-opinion polls sampling 500-700 visitors each, as TIME reported back then. The polls concluded that visitors’ “biggest gripe” was “high prices,” which in 1957 meant admission and rides were about $2.72 a day (amounting to about $23 in 2017), with food averaged another $2. (By contrast, today, many ticket prices start at $100.) Nevertheless, 80% of Disney visitors polled in 1957 said they planned to come back despite the high prices. “Disneyland is proving California’s biggest tourist attraction since Hollywood,” TIME reported.

More: See Photos of Disneyland When It Opened in 1955

Disney’s children’s TV shows lured the 43% of visitors who came from out of state in 1957, while dozens of big U.S. companies sponsored special attractions within the attractions to advertise their products, such as Frontierland’s Golden Horseshoe soft-drink saloon run by Pepsi-Cola. By the time Disney World opened in Florida in 1971, people outside of Anaheim started seeing theme parks closer to home in what the magazine called the “Disneyland effect”; for example, Six Flags had opened in Dallas, St. Louis, and Atlanta, Santa’s Villagein Chicago, and Astroworld in Houston.

While new rides have been added in the years since, the enduring appeal of theme park experiences like Disneyland is arguably rooted in something more timeless.

“As for the twin fountainheads of theme parks— Disneyland in Anaheim , Calif., and the gigantic Walt Disney World outside Orlando—they offer nothing less,” Corliss argued, “than a dream of America as it once or never was: a homogenized, turn-of-the-century village propelled into the future by space-age science and the relentless optimism of its founding dreamer.”

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What British People in 1776 Really Thought of American Independence

A page from the Declaration of Independence is displayed at the New York Public Library on July 3, 2009 in New York City.
A page from the Declaration of Independence is displayed at the New York Public Library on July 3, 2009 in New York City.
Spencer Platt—Getty Images
By CIARA NUGENT

July 3, 2018

In the United States, the Fourth of July is time to launch some fireworks and eat some hot dogs in celebration of American independence. But in 1776, when news reached Britain of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence, the atmosphere was anything but celebratory.

A look through letters from the period, now held in the archives of the U.K.’s Nottingham University, shows that British people were divided about the outbreak of war with what was then their colony—over how bad it was, whose fault it was and what to do about it.

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Before the Americans officially declared independence, the British were worried about what King George’s response to the unrest there would be. After all, the Declaration of Independence was not the beginning of the American Revolution; the riot-provoking Stamp Act was passed in 1765, the Boston Tea Party took place in 1773 and the famous “shot heard ’round the world” that is seen as the start of the war was fired in 1775.

One 1775 letter from a group of merchants and traders in the southwestern port city of Bristol sheds light on the economic concerns provoked by the burgeoning revolution. They wrote to the king to express their concern about the “unhappily distracted empires” and urged him to give the American colonists the freedoms they wanted rather than risk a precious trading relationship.

“It is with an affliction not to be expressed and with the most anxious apprehensions for ourselves and our Posterity that we behold the growing distractions in America threaten, unless prevented by the timely interposition of your Majesty’s Wisdom and Goodness, nothing less than a lasting and ruinous Civil War,” they wrote. “We are apprehensive that if the present measures are adhered to, a total alienation of the affections of our fellow subjects in the colonies will ensue, to which affection much more than to a dread of any power, we have been hitherto indebted for the inestimable benefits which we have derived from those establishments. We can foresee no good effects to the commerce or revenues of this kingdom at a future period from any victories which may be obtained by your majesty’s army over desolated provinces and […] people.”

The traders warned the King that “the subsistence of a great part of your kingdom has depended very much on the Honourable and in this instance amicable behaviour of your American subjects. We have in this single city received no less than one million bushels of wheat […].”

A petition from the Merchants, Traders, Manufacturers and other citizens of Bristol to George III; c.1775
A petition from the Merchants, Traders, Manufacturers and other citizens of Bristol to George III; c.1775
Nottingham University Archives

While they were confident that “none can profit by the continuance of this war,” the traders remained optimistic that the Americans would stay friendly if the British adopt a more conciliatory approach, despite things having been “carried to unfortunate lengths of hostility on both sides.”

“[Our] fellow subjects in that part of the world are very far from having lost their affection and regard to their mother country or departed from the principles of commercial honour,” they wrote.

Though their optimism might seem misplaced today, at the time it wasn’t completely ridiculous. After all, this was the same year that Americans’ Second Continental Congress sent the crown the Olive Branch Petition, a last-ditch attempt to convince the King to back off so that the British subjects in the colonies could continue to live happily under his rule alongside their counterparts in England.

Other letters, however, give indications that some people had given up hope that the King would give in to the colonists’ requests.

For example, in March of 1775, Chevalier Renaud Boccolari—whose own homeland of France would see a massive anti-monarchical uprising just over a decade later—wrote to peers from Modena, Italy, warning of the “awful despotism [of the English king]” and the “crowd of blind and ugly [people] with whom he has shared his unjust power for some time.

“We still find among us souls who are sensitive to freedom, souls that have not been swallowed by the insulting dominion of priests, the barbarous constriction of the inquisition and the blind, despotic monarchy,” he wrote. But, he felt “every free country should be alarmed” that “in this century everything is tending towards the most illegitimate despotism.”

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When news finally broke that the Americans had, in fact, declared their independence—that they planned on being their own country, no longer part of the British empire—many in the English aristocracy were horrified.

A series of letters received by the third Duke of Portland reveal how opinions differed on the subject.

On July 22, 1776, his wife Dorothy wrote to him from Nottinghamshire that she had “received letters filled with unpleasant news, that from America I trust in God is not true, it really is too shocking.” On Aug. 16 of that year, Baron Rudolph Bentick also wrote from the Netherlands, bemoaning the news and sharing what people in Europe thought.

“As to people’s opinion here of Great Britain’s disputes with America,” he wrote, “the well meaning all agree no doubt that it is a most unhappy business for both countries and probably will prove a mortal blow to the liberties of the people of England.”

He warned that the influence of certain ambassadors might lead the Dutch to take advantage of Britain’s loss, and “prevent this country from acting a part most consistent and honourable to themselves, as well as beneficial to the liberties of Europe. Prudence prevents me from saying any more as this letter is to go by the post.”

Some, though, blamed the British government for what was happening, and willed their leaders to give up and abandon the war with the Americans. On Sept. 7, 1776, Stephen Sayre of Harley Street, London, wrote to the Duke of Portland urging him and others to come to a meeting to figure out how to cut Britain’s losses. “And tho we think America is lost: yet we wish to preserve this country,” he wrote.

Letter from Stephen Sayre, Harley Street, London, to the 3rd Duke of Portland; 7 Sep. 1776.
Letter from Stephen Sayre, Harley Street, London, to the 3rd Duke of Portland; 7 Sep. 1776.
Nottingham University Archives

And on Oct. 18 1776, the Rt. Honourable Thomas Townshend wrote to the Duke of Portland complaining that “the Government and Majority have drawn us into a war, that in our opinions is unjust in its Principle and ruinous in its consequences.”

As he prepared for a meeting of Parliament, of which he was a longstanding member, Townshend told the Duke the British authorities “by their violence […] have driven the Americans to extremitys.”

“I cannot for one, on any condition, give my assent to any of their measures in the prosecution of it,” he wrote, worrying that many such measures would be proposed at Parliament’s next session. He worried that, despite his point of view “we shall have a difficult task to support the Americans declaring for separation” among the British political establishment.

Townshend dismissed concerns about his letter being read by censors, writing “I have no objection to any one knowing my opinion on this subject.”

Unsurprisingly, others were less sympathetic to the American rebels.

On Dec. 30 1776, one G.B. Brudenell wrote from London, to H.F.C. Pelham-Clinton, 2nd Duke of Newcastle under Lyne, giving news of the capture of Fort Washington by Gen. Howe, who drove the rebel forces from Manhattan, though at great cost.

“It is very melancholy to think,” Brudenell wrote, “that we must sacrifice so many brave lives, in order to put an end, to such an unnatural Rebellion.”

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How This World Cup Photographer Captured the ‘Pure Excitement’ After Croatia’s Victory

Photographer Yuri Cortez has been shooting for Agence France-Presse for 27 years. The job has brought him around the world, covering everything from conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq to natural disasters in Haiti and Mexico.

But last Wednesday’s 2018 FIFA World Cup match between England and Croatiaoffered Cortez a whole new experience: He found himself at the bottom of a pile of Croatian soccer players as they celebrated star striker Mario Mandžukić’s extra time goal against England — the game winner, it would turn out, punching Croatia’s ticket into Sunday’s final against France. It was Cortez’s fourth World Cup, but his first time at the bottom of a goal celebration.

Croatia's forward Mario Mandzukic (C) celebrates with teammates after scoring his team's second goal during the semi-final game on July 11, 2018.
Croatia’s forward Mario Mandzukic (C) celebrates with teammates after scoring his team’s second goal during the semi-final game on July 11, 2018.
Yuri Cortez—AFP/Getty Images
Croatian defender Josip Pivaric celebrates with his teammates.
Croatian defender Josip Pivaric celebrates with his teammates.
Yuri Cortez—AFP/Getty Images

Following his goal, Mandžukić ran to the corner to celebrate with his teammates directly in front of Cortez. “When the second goal happened, I was taking pictures with a 400mm lens,” says Cortez. “When I saw Mandžukić running towards me, I quickly switched cameras. Suddenly more players were coming closer and closer.” As Croatian players ran over to celebrate the goal, Cortez was pushed over and found himself beneath the celebration pile.

“At that moment I was taking pictures of their faces the whole time. Capturing their joy,” he says. “The scenes that I saw that that moment was pure excitement.”

Croatian forward Mario Mandzukic offers to help AFP photographer Yuri Cortez after falling on him during the celebration.
Croatian forward Mario Mandzukic offers to help AFP photographer Yuri Cortez after falling on him during the celebration.
Yuri Cortez—AFP/Getty Images

As the players got up, Mandžukić extended Cortez a hand and asked, “Are these your glasses?” He then placed the glasses on Cortez’s head and shook his hand. Croatian defender Domagoj Vida then gave Cortez a kiss on the forehead before the team returned to the field, leaving him stunned with a glowing smile. “It’s a historic moment for them and a great moment for me,” he says. “Really incredible”

Mario Mandzukic shakes hands with photographer Yuri Cortez after helping him up.
Mario Mandzukic shakes hands with photographer Yuri Cortez after helping him up.
Mladen Antonov—AFP/Getty Images

Cortez says his phone has not stopped ringing from people and publications who are interested in the photographs. But his focus is now on the final game — where he says he’ll be rooting for Croatia.

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What to Know About Gerda Taro, the War Photographer Celebrated By Today’s Google Doodle

Google is paying tribute to pioneering photojournalist Gerda Taro with its Google Doodle on Wednesday.

The Doodle comes on what would have been Taro’s 108th birthday — but the trail-blazing war photographer lost her life at just 26 years old, while covering the Spanish Civil War in 1937. Nonetheless, Taro managed to accomplish quite a bit in her short career.

Taro — born Gerda Pohorylle in Stuttgart, Germany — left Germany for Paris in 1933, after Adolf Hitler become chancellor. In Paris, Taro met and fell in love with photographer Robert Capa, who taught her the basics of the craft, according to the International Center of Photography (ICP). They began covering the Spanish Civil War as a team starting in 1936, the BBC reports, capturing images of troops, conflict and Spanish refugees and sending them back to French newspapers.

Eventually, Taro began venturing out alone on photographic missions — including the one in 1937 that led to her death, after she was inadvertently crushed a Loyalist tank, according to ICP.

A decade ago, an exhibition at the Barbican Art Gallery in London, featuring many never-before-seen images taken by Taro and Capa, gave her work new life. Although Taro’s work has been overshadowed by Capa’s, and her legacy remains largely unknown, she is considered one of the world’s first frontline female war photographers, and the first to die in action.

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Photographers on the Trendiest Photo App Filling Your Feed With Retro Photos

If you search the hashtag #huji on Instagram, more than 300,000 results pop up, all tied to images that resemble developed disposable camera photos. The smartphone app Huji provides a filter that, in their own words, “makes your moments as precious as the feelings of analog film with old memories.” Essentially, the app and the numerous others like it, offer the look and feel of photos shot on a disposable film camera without the wait time of developing.

The app’s name and interface could be tongue-in-cheek homages to Fujifilm and other brands that provide disposable cameras, with elements orchestrated to give you a feel for the limitations of a disposable film camera. This includes the factors outside of your control with a disposable camera: random light leak filters, blurred edges, a touch of graininess, and hypersaturated colors, as well as a tiny point and shoot viewfinder with no preview (something that’s hardly an issue when you consider that photos taken are instantly “developed” and delivered to the user’s photo roll.)

The most on-the-nose reference to disposable film cameras, however, might be the time stamps that appear on the corners. They read with the day and month and the current year or 1998, a time when disposable cameras were ubiquitous and the iPhone was merely a glimmer in Steve Jobs’ eye.

Although it debuted last fall, Huji’s become a viral sensation this summer, with celebrities, and casual Instagram users using its slightly imperfect filters to capture their moments. This, of course, begs the question: what’s the allure of shooting digital photos with an imperfect instant film aesthetic?

Brooklyn-based visual artist and photographer Austin Phelps (an avid Huji user who also shoots photos on 35 mm film) chalks the popularity up to nostalgia and ease.

“I think it’s because everyone’s obsessed with old things now and it’s a timeless quality, like you can’t tell what era it is,” Phelps said. “It brings it back to this old school feel. People just want some cool artsy pictures and anyone can do it now, it’s very tangible and it’s pretty easy…now it’s like anyone can be a film photographer”

Phelps’ affection for Huji is also rooted in memory; he remembers that in 1998, the year that Huji stamps in every photo’s corner, he was “a wild little elementary kid going off and taking disposable cameras on field trips.” He understands why the app might not be for everyone, especially people who have shot on real film.

Photographer Stephen Shore, Program Director at Bard College’s photography program, does not use Huji or any photo filters. But he stressed that for him personally, film photography is less about a nostalgic aesthetic and more about learning and honing technique, something he uses while teaching his students.

“Digital can do anything and so sometimes artists need limitations to learn and to do things physically,” Shore said, explaining that shooting on film is a process.

Shore, who has been shooting on film for 64 years (his early career included working with Andy Warhol at the legendary Factory) but also has a robust Instagram account where he posts images and videos that he shoots with his iPhone, pointed out that certain elements of the Huji app’s aesthetic are not actually indicative of film, but mistakes unique to film. He isn’t sure that stylized filters will have longevity.

 

“It’s a visual gimmick and it never makes a picture good. The picture is good because of the decisions the photographer makes. And that’s what lasts,” he said.

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Everyone’s A F*cking Photographer

(A Labour-Day Weekend Rant for you, with apologies to those who cringe when I cuss.)

Last time I was in Venice I saw a camera-ladened photographer, a huge tripod slung over his shoulder, turn to a friend and gesture to the crowds of people happily making photographs with their mobile phones, as he sneered, “now everybody thinks they’re a f*cking photographer.”

I wish he’d said it to me. I wish I’d had the chance to ask him: So?

It’s true. With more cameras in the world than ever before, and most of those in mobile phones, many of us don’t go anywhere without one. More than ever our lives are recorded. We’re cranking out, and sharing, photographs at a rate that would make George Eastman twitch. We are, certainly, the most photographed, and the most photographing, generation ever.

Why the photographer struggling under all his gear in Venice is so bent out of shape about it is anyone’s guess. Perhaps his cappuccino made him gassy and bloated. But it’s likely this: when he bought his first camera there was a mystique to the archetype of the traveling photographer, already well-worn and covered in dust from foreign lands. He probably scrimped and saved for that first camera, and it took him a long time to master his craft. The word “photographer” conjured something for him. Something important. It was a badge of honour. A trophy. And it probably became a golden calf.

None of us likes to see our golden calf trampled by the masses. Of course, that’s not really what’s happening, but it’s how these particular photographers see the mass-adoption of the craft that once made them so special and self-important. Like pearls before the swine, they think, which is of course ridiculous because the very democratic nature of this craft that is causing such mass-adoption is what allowed them entry too.

They cringe because it’s not about photography to them. It’s about them. It’s about ego. And that’s a shame because one of the gifts of this craft is the opening of our eyes to a world that is so much bigger than ourselves. The gift of photography, and that we can – yes, all of us – be photographers, is that it is a way of seeing the world and being more alive in the world and the more of us that have our eyes open, the better.

When the words, “everyone is a photographer!” are muttered we show our true cards. We reveal first that we believe the very word “photographer” has intrinsic merit. We believe, mistakenly, that it implies something precious, not unlike our use of the word “artist.” For the record, I think our use of the word “artist” has become too precious as well. We say it with misplaced reverence. To be an artist simply means we make art. Some of it will be good, some will be garbage, and many will be the arguments about which is which. Oddly, the photographers who would never deign to call themselves “artists” for fear of being called out as a snob, will happily exclude others from their ranks as “a photographer.” It’s time to call this what it is: elitism, snobbery, and small-heartedness.

More worryingly, when we bemoan the new reality, that so many people are in fact becoming photographers, we show an unwillingness to share the thing that has given us such pleasure.

Photography opens eyes and minds and hearts.

Photography is a means of interacting.

It is a means of flexing our much needed creativity.

It’s a means of holding time still and cherishing our moments in a way we might not otherwise do.

It’s a way of asking questions and seeking and honouring beauty.

It can be a way of challenging our assumptions and discovering worlds beyond what we previously knew.

Photography has made my life richer.

It has given me tremendous freedom.

It has allowed this introverted kid to emerge from a shell I might have been trapped in forever.

And yes, it’s given me over the last dozen years or so, a means by which I make a living.

All of these are gifts I cherish. And I fear for the kid in Piazza San Marco who overhears the petty comments of the fearful and the jealous and puts his camera away, cutting himself off from such gifts just because some guy carries a large tripod to compensate for his small…heart, and can’t stand to share a pie he believes ought to be his alone. Why?

Because he got there first?

Because his camera is bigger or better?

Because his credit card has a larger limit or he’s read more articles on PetaPixel and knows what an anti-aliasing filter is or how to spell “Fibonacci” without Googling it as I just had to?

On behalf of every kid, young or old, who picks up the camera for the first time and finds in it joy and wonder and experiences the thrill of making their first photographs, no matter how bad they are, to hell with your judgements and elitism.

The rest of us love being photographers, some still very wet behind the ears, some making their first print sales, some walking a little bit terrified into their first gig and wondering if they can pull it off, some just doing it to see what the world looks like when photographed, even after all these years. Remember what that felt like? We do. And there’s room in that wonder for all of us.

To all of you who still chase the magic, keep going. Keep learning, playing, chasing the wonder and the magic. Remember there’s a vast difference between exposing your film or your sensor, and exposing your souls, and that those who do the former without doing the later, won’t – no matter what they call themselves – experience the freedom and joy of this craft that way you do.

Everyone is a f*cking photographer?

Sure.

And it’s about f*cking time.

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Your Worst Images Might Be Your Most Important

No one nails it on the first shot.

No one.

I know: you have this one friend who got lucky back in 1986. One shot. Nailed it. You might have done so, too—that one time you raised the camera to your face, made one frame and it’s now your absolute favourite photograph and it hangs on your wall to this day so take that, duChemin. I know. I have a couple like that as well. Two or three images that defied the odds.

The others, the hundreds or thousands of images that are my best work, all were made after sketching them out. Every photographer you look up to has a process, and almost every iconic image you love is a result of that process, flanked on the contact sheets or Lightroom libraries by many others that never made the cut.

I call my own process “sketching.”

Sketch images are the photographs I make to see what it looks like. I try different angles, make the photograph and see what it feels like. I change the angles until I get it feeling the way I want it to. Along the way, I might change a lens because it wasn’t my perspective at all, but the lens that wasn’t really working the way I had hoped. And I wait for moments, sometimes realizing my subject is better expressed with a slower shutter speed, so I try that, and I evaluate the results. I do it quickly, but I let those images give me feedback. And slowly, bit by bit, I get closer to the magic. Bad images slowly get stronger and lead to good images.

Other people just bang off a bunch of shots until they get it right and they look back at those first frames and think they suck. And they might. But they aren’t crap. They aren’t garbage. They’re necessary steps to get to the better frames. Sometimes I need only 2 or 3 of them to get myself firing on all cylinders. Sometimes I need 20. And sometimes I sketch something out for a year or more, returning, never quite getting it but getting closer.

This shift in perspective, from seeing your preliminary images as junk to seeing them as important and valuable, allows you to be more playful with them. It allows you to be less critical of them and instead to let them lead you. What do you like about one particular frame? What could you do differently? What doesn’t work for you and how can you exclude those things? What changes can you make to give your subject its best expression? Do you need to wait for better light? Better moments? Do you need to change your perspective, your lens, your shutter speed?

See the difference in approach? One, the “everything I’m shooting is crap” approach, leads to frustration. The other, the “everything I’m making is getting me closer to a better final image” approach, leads to creativity, play, experimentation, and—ultimately—to stronger photographs.

It also makes me a happier person. I have terabytes of sketch images. They are the grease that got me to my growing handful of photographs I do love, the ones for which I am proud. They show me my progress in ways terabytes of “mistakes” or “crap” would not. I am progressing. So are you. And you’ll do so faster if you learn from your early efforts.

No writer sits down and writes a novel or a screenplay or even an article in one easy draft. They make plenty of false starts and unreadable first drafts. But those drafts are necessary stepping stones. They are way stations without which the final book or play never happens. That’s how I see sketch images. I do not mean pray and spray—I do not mean mindlessly mashing down the shutter button. But most of you are not in that category.

I don’t worry you’re making too many images; I worry you aren’t making enough images.

I worry you’re stopping at a couple frames, shrugging and putting your camera down because “it’s just not working.” I worry you think it’s a lack of talent or you just don’t have “the eye” that others do. Nonsense. You’re just not working the process. You’re giving up too soon.

I came home from Varanasi this spring with 9800 sketch images that I will never show the world. But I needed to make them in order to get to the 24 that I love. The screen shot at the top of this post? I made 335 sketches to get to the one I love. I’m not trying to make myself feel better about the ones that didn’t work; I feel great about them because without my sketches I never would have arrived at my final photographs.

Your so-called failure rate doesn’t matter. Mine gets worse over time as I loosen up and become more willing to experiment and try new things, caring less about each individual frame and more about where they might lead me.

There is no badge of honour for the artist with the cleanest, tidiest process. There is no reward for using fewer memory cards. No one will judge you for the images you’ll never show them.

The only thing that matters is that you make your best work and that you trust whatever process—messy or otherwise—that gets you there.

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These Never-Before-Published Photos Show Tennis Icon Arthur Ashe Making U.S. Open History

Arthur Ashe hits a running forehand during his 5 set victory over Tom Okker in the 1968 US Open Men's Singles Championship. September 9, 1968. Photo by John G. Zimmerman.

On Monday, Arthur Ashe Stadium in Queens, N.Y., swings open its doors to tennis fans, as the first round of the 2018 U.S. Open tournament begins. This year marks the 50th anniversary of the stadium’s namesake becoming the first African-American man to win a Grand Slam title.

When Ashe defeated Tom Okker of the Netherlands on Sept. 9, 1968, it was an exciting game to watch, to say the least; the 25-year-old Richmond, Va., nativeserved 26 aces throughout the match, 15 of them to win the first set, which went all the way up to 14-12. (Tiebreakers were introduced in 1970.)

Even so, the record $14,000 prize money for the match went to Okker, who was the last professional player standing that year; Ashe got a $20 per diem as an amateur. But things were changing for Ashe — by year’s end, he would be ranked the No. 1 tennis player by the United States Lawn Tennis Association — as well as for the world around him. Fifty years later, Ashe’s win stands out as not only a milestone in tennis history, but also a milestone in the civil rights movement.

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One of the many people watching tennis history be made that year was longtime TIME and LIFE photographer John G. Zimmerman, whose images from that day were included in LIFE’s cover story the following week, about Ashe’s achievement — but many of Zimmerman’s pictures were never published in the magazine. The new book Crossing the Line: Arthur Ashe at the 1968 U.S. Open, from which the images above are drawn, brings together those pictures 50 years later. The book includes hundreds that have never before been seen publicly, some of which are included in the gallery above.

Zimmerman shadowed Ashe during much of the 36 hours in before, during and after the U.S. Open that year. The pictures show the surprisingly ordinary events that led up to his extraordinary achievement, such as the solitary subway ride from his hotel in Midtown Manhattan to the match in Forest Hills.

The Sept. 20, 1968, cover of LIFE magazine would describe his style of keeping it cool on the court as “icy elegance.” But he didn’t hold back at all when it came to talking about the impact of his playing within the larger fight for racial equality.

“I can make my protest heard by winning,” he told LIFE. “People don’t listen to losers.”

And win he did. By the time Ashe died in 1993, after contracting HIV from a blood transfusion following heart bypass surgery, he had won 33 singles titles and 14 doubles titles. When he was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, President Bill Clinton remarked that Ashe had an “inner strength and outward dignity” that “marked his game every bit as much as that dazzling crosscourt backhand.”

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The Inside Story of a Trump Volunteer Blocking a Photographer at a Rally

A Trump campaign volunteer blocks a camera as a photojournalist attempts to take a photo of a protester during a campaign rally at the Ford Center, in Evansville, Ind, August 30, 2018.

 

The image of a Trump campaign volunteer blocking the lens of a news photographer’s camera at a rally Thursday went viral overnight.

Even by the standards of a rally by President Donald Trump – who frequently points out journalists covering his events and calls them “enemy of the people” and “fake news” – this was out of the ordinary, says the photographer who captured the moment in Evansville, Indiana.

“We’re all just trying to do our job, which is to be fair and accurately document the President. When someone impedes you from doing your job, that’s something to be upset about,” Associated Press photographer Evan Vucci tells TIME.

Vucci says he made the picture as a fellow photojournalist Kevin Lamarque of Reuters tried to photograph Trump supporters pointing out a protestor in the crowd. In a flash, a campaign volunteer put his hand in front of Lamarque’s lens to stop him. Lamarque managed to get a shot anyway – plus a photo of the hand blocking his lens.

Lamarque tells TIME that the volunteer was Nick Barbknecht, who was assigned to help journalists covering the event.

Barbknecht, who did not respond to requests for comment, is well known in Indiana Republican circles, says Indiana attorney and political commentator Joshua Claybourne. Claybourne tells TIME that Barbknecht is a seasoned political operator in the state who is married to a staffer for Vice President Mike Pence.

A biography for political consultant Majority Strategies says Barbknecht joined the firm from “the blocking and tackling of Republican politics in Indiana where he served on the Indiana Republican State Committee and as a County Chairman.”

Lamarque says Barbknecht apologized after being called out for blocking his camera.

“I told him, ‘That thing you did in the buffer? You can’t do that, it’s a big no-no.’ And he said, ‘I know, I’m sorry,’” Lamarque says.

“It was just something so out of the ordinary, I’ve never seen that before so I assumed people would react to the photo.” Vucci says.

Vucci, who knows Lamarque well, says he talked to him right after the incident.

“I said ‘Hey man I have a photo of this happening’ and everyone was happy it was captured,” Vucci says.

Lamarque says that was the first time something like this has happened to him but that the press always feel a little on edge during Trump rallies.

“There’s always a little undercurrent of hostility at these events, you can feel that eyes are watching you and judging you. Trump really woke up the crowd yesterday, ramping it up a little bit by calling out the New York Times,” he says.

White House Correspondents’ Association President Olivier Knox said in a statement Friday he had spoken with both the White House and the Trump campaign about the volunteer.

“The Trump campaign assures me that these were the actions of an inexperienced volunteer, who understands he acted in error. The campaign has taken him off the road and promises this will not happen again.” Knox said in a statement.

In 2016 TIME photographer Christopher Morris was detained by U.S Secret Service and local law enforcement while attempting to photograph a Black Lives Matter protestor at a Trump rally in Virginia.

Trump was in Indiana in support of Republican Senate candidate Mike Braun, who is running against Democratic Sen. Joe Donnelly. At rallies, he often directs angry comments at journalists covering his events and pauses to let supporters boo. He also has a history of pointing out protestors and encouraging the crowd to boo until security removes them. During the campaign, there were instances of protestors being assaulted at Trump rallies

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Best Home outline thoughts for 2016

Before, insides were assembled intuitively as a piece of the way toward building. The calling of inside plan has been an outcome of the advancement of society and the mind boggling design that has come about because of the improvement of mechanical procedures. The quest for compelling utilization of room, client prosperity and practical outline has added to the improvement of the contemporary inside plan calling. The calling of inside plan is particular and unmistakable from the part of Interior Decorator, a term normally utilized in the US. The term is less basic in the UK where the calling of inside outline is as yet unregulated and accordingly, entirely, not yet authoritatively a calling.

In antiquated India, draftsmen used to function as inside fashioners. This can be seen from the references of Vishwakarma the designer – one of the divine beings in Indian folklore. Furthermore, the figures portraying antiquated writings and occasions are found in royal residences worked in seventeenth century India.

In old Egypt, “soul houses” or models of houses were put in tombs as repositories for nourishment contributions. From these, it is conceivable to observe insights about the inside plan of various habitations all through the diverse Egyptian traditions, for example, changes in ventilation, porticoes, sections, loggias, windows, and entryways.

All through the seventeenth and eighteenth century and into the mid nineteenth century, inside adornment was the worry of the homemaker, or an utilized upholsterer or specialist who might exhort on the masterful style for an inside space.

Planners would likewise utilize specialists or craftsmans to finish inside outline for their structures.

In the mid-to-late nineteenth century, inside plan administrations extended extraordinarily, as the working class in mechanical nations developed in size and success and started to want the local trappings of riches to concrete their new status. Expansive furniture firms started to fan out into general inside outline and administration, offering full house decorations in an assortment of styles. This plan of action thrived from the mid-century to 1914, when this part was progressively usurped by autonomous, frequently beginner, creators. This made ready for the rise of the expert inside outline in the mid-twentieth century.

In the 1960s, upholsterers started to extend their business transmits. They encircled their business all the more comprehensively and in imaginative terms and started to promote their furniture to people in general. To take care of the developing demand for contract inside work on activities, for example, workplaces, lodgings, and open structures, these organizations turned out to be substantially bigger and more intricate, utilizing manufacturers, joiners, plasterers, material architects, specialists, and furniture fashioners, and designers and professionals to satisfy the activity. Firms started to distribute and course lists with prints for various rich styles to pull in the consideration of extending white collar classes.

As retail chains expanded in number and size, retail spaces inside shops were outfitted in various styles as cases for clients. One especially powerful publicizing apparatus was to set up demonstrate rooms at national and universal presentations in showrooms for general society to see. A portion of the spearheading firms in such manner were Waring and Gillow, James Shoolbred, Mintons, and Holland and Sons. These conventional superb furniture making firms started to assume an essential part as counsels to uncertain white collar class clients on taste and style, and started taking out contracts to outline and outfit the insides of numerous vital structures in Britain.

This sort of firm developed in America after the Civil War. The Herter Brothers, established by two German emigre siblings, started as an upholstery stockroom and wound up one of the principal firms of furniture creators and inside decorators. With their own particular outline office and cupboard making and upholstery workshops, Herter Brothers were set up to achieve each part of inside outfitting including enhancing framing and shelves, divider and roof improvement, designed floors, and covers and draperies.

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